Early in the U. Early cases of HIV infection that were sexually transmitted often were related to the use of alcohol and other substances, and the majority of these cases occurred in urban, educated, white MSMs. Currently, injection drug users represent the largest HIV-infected substance-abusing population in the United States.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata.
Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets.
Loss of job was mainly due to illness Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband's illness, in the case of ICTC patients.
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a disease entity that has been recognized since It is caused by infection with the human immune deficiency virus, which attacks selected cells in the immune system and produces defects in function. Revelations about Social Issues in Today's Society Health Issues Health issues, which arise due to the increase in number of people detected with life-threatening diseases like cancer and AIDS every year. INTRODUCTION. The HIV/AIDS epidemic today is not simply a health issue. Its spread and impact cuts across all levels of society causing important consequences for human security.
High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. Weakened family and societal support systems, decreased participation in formal education of young people as a result of AIDS in the family, along with depleted family income due to loss of work, and poor disease management present additional vulnerabilities.
The state gains because production is not disrupted in key sectors. Only patients willing to participate in the study were included and were interviewed in the presence of a trained counselor, after taking their informed consent and ensuring complete anonymity and confidentiality.
Information pertaining to age, sex, marital status, occupation, family income, and expenditure including cost incurred to treatment, schooling of children, perception of family members toward the PLWHAs, etc.
The data were analyzed by using proportions, chi-square and z-tests for proportions. Overall mean age of the participants was Hindus constituted the majority Skilled workers and housewives constituted the majority of patients. Approximately, one-third of indoor The mean of previous and present per capita monthly income was Rs.
Mean working days lost in 1 year was Table 1 Open in a separate window When reasons for the above-mentioned socioeconomic consequences were explored Table 2it was found that illness was the most common reason One-fifth of indoor and 4.
Table 2 Open in a separate window A higher proportion On the other hand selling of assets to meet the expenses incurred to husband's sickness was reported by Financial problems were accounted for in Sickness of the participants was the most common reason for decrease in family income in both groups of patients, followed by unemployment of patient and death of husband.
Medicines, investigations, and travel were the major causes for increased expenditure in both the groups. Hospitalization costs were also an important factor in Behavior of the family members as perceived by the indoor patients was also explored [ Table 3 ].
Among 92 indoor patients, 78 Overall, spouses were the major caregivers of the indoor patients Of the 72 ever married indoor patients, the in-laws were aware of HIV-positive status in Disturbed relationship with spouse was reported by Families feel its economic impact as soon as one of their members falls ill with an AIDS-related condition.
Amid rising household expenditures, families compromised on education and faced mounting debts, also corroborated in this study. In our study, loss of job following disclosure was an important observation among in-patients, majority of whom were migrant skilled workers.
A significantly higher proportion of indoor patients cited their sickness as the main reason for selling of assets compared to newly diagnosed, as the duration and severity of their illness was more. In the present study, half of the female ICTC patients were already financially affected and had to sell assets mainly due to their husband's HIV infection and subsequent illness.
A study 5 in Mumbai also found that economic wellbeing of the households was severely affected by AIDS.
Wives experienced the maximum burden, as their spouses lost jobs and they themselves were either poorly paid or ill equipped to start earning. Women came to the hospitals mainly to take medicines for their husbands or for counseling and generally started treatment only after they become widows.
Time and transportation expenses also added to the economic burden because health facilities were often located far from house. This reflects the traditional values of an Indian society where at the time of crisis, the extended family gives economic and social support - also reflected in several case studies 78where it was found that the responsibility of the joint family often remains even when the economic activity of the household is not joint.
Even families that were predominantly nuclear seemed to turn first to and often automatically receive support from the larger family unit.Jul 02, · Introduction.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most significant health and social problems facing the world today. Over the last decade, due to the rise of ‘mobile prostitution’ with illegal workers from abroad, especially from .
HIV and AIDS social issues In many regions, social issues increase the risk of HIV infection making it difficult to tackle the global HIV epidemic effectively. Certain . AIDS/HIV Related Stigma Essay - Introduction Since the appearance of AIDS in the late seventies and early eighties, the disease has had attached to it a significant social stigma.
The debate about whether relative poverty issue matters in wealthy society has received worldwide attention.
Relative poverty is a prevalent and unavoidable problem in modernization society, even in developed country this issue is inevitable as well.
Aids and Society The number of newborns infected by vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus is increasing as the prevalence of HIV-positive women increase within the United States.
It is estimated that while seven thousand HIV-positive women become pregnant each year, betw. An introduction to key issues about HIV treatment and living with HIV, presented as a series of illustrated leaflets. Booklets Our award-winning series of booklets, with each title providing a comprehensive overview of one aspect of living with HIV.