Prior to the first act, an induction frames the play as a "kind of history" played in front of a befuddled drunkard named Christopher Sly who is tricked into believing that he is a lord. The play is performed in order to distract Sly from his "wife," who is actually Bartholomew, a servant, dressed as a woman. In the play performed for Sly, the "shrew" is Katherina, the eldest daughter of Baptista Minola, a lord in Padua. Numerous men, including Gremio and Tranio, deem Katherina an unworthy option for marriage because of her notorious assertiveness and willfulness.
Frame story The literary device of stories within a story dates back to a device known as a " frame story ", where a supplemental story is used to help tell the main story. Typically, the outer story, or "frame" does not have much matter, and most of the bulk of the work consists of one or more complete stories told by one or more storytellers.
The earliest examples of "frame stories" and "stories within stories" were in ancient Egyptian and Indian literaturesuch as the Egyptian Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor  and Indian epics like the RamayanaSeven Wise MastersHitopadesha and Vikram and the Vampire. In Vishnu Sarma 's Panchatantraan inter-woven series of colorful animal tales are told with one narrative opening within another, sometimes three or four layers deep, and then unexpectedly snapping shut in irregular rhythms to sustain attention.
In the epic Mahabharatathe Kurukshetra War is narrated by a character in Vyasa 's Jaya, which itself is narrated by a character in Vaisampayana 's Bharata, which itself is narrated by a character in Ugrasrava's Mahabharata.
Another early example is the One Thousand and One Nights Arabian Nightswhere the general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In many of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narratedand even in some of these, there are some other stories.
Within the story, after the murderer reveals himself, he narrates a flashback of events leading up to the murder. Within this flashback, an unreliable narrator tells a story to mislead the would-be murderer, who later discovers that he was misled after another character narrates the truth to him.
This perennially popular work can be traced back to ArabicPersianand Indian storytelling traditions. Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein has a deeply nested frame story structure, that features the narration of an Arctic explorer, who records the narration of Victor Frankenstein, who recounts the narration of his creation, who narrates the story of a cabin dwelling family he secretly observes.
Similarly, Roald Dahl 's story The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar is about a rich bachelor who finds an essay written by someone who learnt to "see" playing cards from the reverse side. The full text of this essay is included in the story, and itself includes a lengthy sub-story told as a true experience by one of the essay's protagonists, Imhrat Khan.
In Chaucer 's Canterbury Talesthe characters tell tales suited to their personalities and tell them in ways that highlight their personalities. The noble knight tells a noble story, the boring character tells a very dull tale, and the rude miller tells a smutty tale.
Homer 's Odyssey too makes use of this device; Odysseus ' adventures at sea are all narrated by Odysseus to the court of king Alcinous in Scheria. Other shorter tales, many of them false, account for much of the Odyssey.
A well-known modern example of framing is The Princess Bride both the book and the movie. In the movie, a grandfather is reading the story of "The Princess Bride" to his grandson. In the book, a more detailed frame story has a father editing a much longer but fictive work for his son, creating his own "Good Parts Version" as the book called it by leaving out all the parts that would bore a young boy.
Both the book and the movie assert that the central story is from a book called "The Princess Bride" by a nonexistent author named S. Sometimes a frame story exists in the same setting as the main story. On the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicleseach episode was framed as though it were being told by Indy when he was older usually acted by George Hallbut once by Harrison Ford.The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between and The play begins with a framing device, often referred to as the induction, in which a mischievous nobleman tricks a drunken tinker named Christopher Sly into believing he is actually a nobleman himself.
The nobleman then has the play performed for Sly's diversion. Aspinall, Dana E. The Taming of the Shrew: Critical Essays.
Routledge, Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages: The Taming of the Shrew.
Bloom's Literary Criticism, Shafer, Liz. "A Shrew and The Shrew." British Library Treasures in Full.
The British Library, 09 Sept. This volume is a comprehensive collection of critical essays onThe Taming of the Shrew, and includes extensive discussions of the play's various printed versions and its theatrical productions.
Aspinall has included only those essays that offer the most influential and controversial arguments surrounding the play.
Loughborough University Institutional Repository Review of The Taming of the Shrew: Critical Essays Ed. Dana E Aspinall (New York: Routledge, ).
The Taming of the Shrew: Critical Essays by Dana E Aspinall (Editor) starting at $ The Taming of the Shrew: Critical Essays has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris Weekend Special | $15 Off. Aspinall has included only those essays that offer the This volume is a comprehensive collection of critical essays on The Taming of the Shrew, and includes extensive discussions of the play's various printed versions and its theatrical productions.