While the payments landscape has evolved rapidly over the past decade, due to a flurry of innovation and regulation, expansive growth in electronic payments and the inclusion of new market entrants, industry research1 indicates that the next decade will yield a period of even faster changes, writes Daniel Szmukler, director, Euro Banking Association. In the traditional electronic payments sector the weak global economy continues to drive cost efficiencies in both domestic and international payments systems.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The objective of this study was to undertake a situation analysis of the Zambian eye health system and assess VISION process indicators on human resources, equipment and infrastructure.
Methods All eye health care providers were surveyed to determine location, financing sources, human resources and equipment.
Key informants were interviewed regarding levels of service provision, management and leadership in the sector. Policy papers were reviewed. A health system dynamics framework was used to analyse findings. Private facilities were solely located in major cities.
A total of people worked in eye care; 18 of these were ophthalmologists and eight cataract surgeons, equivalent to 0. VISION targets for inpatient beds and surgical theatres were met in six out of nine provinces, but human resources and spectacles manufacturing workshops were below target in every province.
Inequalities in service provision between urban and rural areas were substantial. Conclusion Shortage and maldistribution of human resources, lack of routine monitoring and inadequate financing mechanisms are the root causes of underperformance in the Zambian eye health system, which hinder the ability to achieve the VISION goals.
We recommend that all VISION process indicators are evaluated simultaneously as these are not individually useful for monitoring progress. The aims are to eliminate avoidable blindness by and prevent the projected doubling of the burden of visual impairment between and [ 2 ].
Focus is placed on targeting the leading causes of blindness: Comprehensive eye care services include eye health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation.
An essential prerequisite for achieving the VISION goals is that these services are well integrated into national health systems. To date, all WHO member states have formally pledged to invest in eye care and the large majority of countries have formed VISION committees and drafted national eye care plans [ 4 ].
However, the implementation of these plans varies widely across countries and remains the biggest challenge for reaching the set goals. The objectives of the present study were to undertake a situation analysis of Zambian eye health services and examine progress towards achieving VISION process indicator targets.
The analysis should be used by Zambian policy makers to facilitate future planning of eye care services and by international stakeholders when evaluating progress and constraints for achieving VISION goals. In addition, the present study seeks to contribute to methodological issues in health systems analysis.
Methods Data collection Data were collected using a mixed methods approach between February and June from three sources: Triangulation was used to synthesise and integrate the data from multiple sources [ 56 ]. The survey questionnaire was adapted from the VISION situation analysis data collection tool and from a list of essential equipment for a functional eye unit compiled by IAPB [ 78 ].
Data collected included sources of funding, ownership, types of services delivered, human resources, equipment and number of beds available for ophthalmic patients. To identify survey participants, directories of public and private facilities offering eye care services were obtained from the Ministry of Health, The Church Health Association of Zambia and the Health Institutions and Professionals Board.
These lists were verified and supplemented with information from key informants to ensure that no providers were missed. The questionnaire was emailed to facilities for self-completion after a preliminary telephone call or administered during face-to-face interviews.
A total of 74 respondents, one from each eye care facility identified, took part in the survey. Five key informants were purposively selected on the basis of their knowledge of the Zambian eye care sector and interviewed face-to-face following a semi-structured topic guide.Conley was named among 35 finalists for the U.S.
Olympic Men’s Team in January, and hopes to emerge on the man roster that will qualify to compete at the Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Background.
VISION is a global initiative launched in to eliminate avoidable blindness by The objective of this study was to undertake a situation analysis of the Zambian eye health system and assess VISION process indicators on human resources, equipment and infrastructure. Vision sets A New Gold Standard of University Performance.
Historic Symbols and Contemporary Symbolism The image of the mythological phoenix graces our University seal as an enduring symbol of rebirth and renewal.
It stands as a reminder of the necessity to reinvent, reinvigorate and redefine ourselves as we set our course for The National Eye Health Programme of Cuba (population million with ophthalmologists) is advancing positively toward the goals of VISION The number of cataract surgeries increased from 10, in to almost 15, in , with the percentage receiving an IOL increasing from 63% to 93% (Table (Table1).
1). Can Malaysia be a developed country by ? If we examine the WEF’s recent report (The Global Competitiveness Report ), there is a strong possibility that Malaysia will reach that magic number of per capita income US$12, to be classified as a developed country. The Future of Payments: towards a vision for While the payments landscape has evolved rapidly over the past decade, due to a flurry of innovation and regulation, expansive growth in electronic payments and the inclusion of new market entrants, industry research 1 indicates that the next decade will yield a period of even faster changes.