Many current FAQs deal with questions about biological and geological origins here on Earth. This page will take a broader view, focusing on the the universe itself. Before beginning the examination of the evidence surrounding current cosmology, it is important to understand what Big Bang Theory BBT is and is not.
Timeline[ edit ] Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element. Elements from carbon up to sulfur may be made in small stars by the alpha process. Elements beyond iron are made in large stars with slow neutron capture s-processfollowed by expulsion to space in gas ejections see planetary nebulae.
Elements heavier than iron may be made in neutron star mergers or supernovae after the r-processinvolving a dense burst of neutrons and rapid capture by the element.
It is thought that the primordial nucleons themselves were formed from the quark—gluon plasma during the Big Bang as it cooled below two trillion degrees. A few minutes afterward, starting with only protons and neutronsnuclei up to lithium and beryllium both with mass number 7 were formed, but the abundances of other elements dropped sharply with growing atomic mass.
Some boron may have been formed at this time, but the process stopped before significant carbon could be formed, as this element requires a far higher product of helium density and time than Nucleosynthesis beyond iron present in the short nucleosynthesis period of the Big Bang.
That fusion process essentially shut down at about 20 minutes, due to drops in temperature and density as the universe continued to expand. This first process, Big Bang nucleosynthesiswas the first type of nucleogenesis to occur in the universe.
The subsequent nucleosynthesis of the heavier elements requires the extreme temperatures and pressures found within stars and supernovas.
These processes began as hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang collapsed into the first stars at million years. Star formation has occurred continuously in galaxies since that time. Among the elements found naturally on Earth the so-called primordial elementsthose heavier than boron were created by stellar nucleosynthesis and by supernova nucleosynthesis.
Synthesis of these elements occurred either by nuclear fusion including both rapid and slow multiple neutron capture or to a lesser degree by nuclear fission followed by beta decay.
A star gains heavier elements by combining its lighter nuclei, hydrogendeuteriumberylliumlithiumand boronwhich were found in the initial composition of the interstellar medium and hence the star.
Interstellar gas therefore contains declining abundances of these light elements, which are present only by virtue of their nucleosynthesis during the Big Bang. Larger quantities of these lighter elements in the present universe are therefore thought to have been restored through billions of years of cosmic ray mostly high-energy proton mediated breakup of heavier elements in interstellar gas and dust.
The fragments of these cosmic-ray collisions include the light elements Li, Be and B. History of nucleosynthesis theory[ edit ] The first ideas on nucleosynthesis were simply that the chemical elements were created at the beginning of the universe, but no rational physical scenario for this could be identified.
Gradually it became clear that hydrogen and helium are much more abundant than any of the other elements. At the same time it was clear that oxygen and carbon were the next two most common elements, and also that there was a general trend toward high abundance of the light elements, especially those composed of whole numbers of helium-4 nuclei.
Arthur Stanley Eddington first suggested inthat stars obtain their energy by fusing hydrogen into helium and raised the possibility that the heavier elements may also form in stars. In the years immediately before World War II, Hans Bethe first elucidated those nuclear mechanisms by which hydrogen is fused into helium.
Hoyle proposed that hydrogen is continuously created in the universe from vacuum and energy, without need for universal beginning. FowlerAlastair G.
Cameronand Donald D. Claytonfollowed by many others. The seminal review paper by E. BurbidgeFowler and Hoyle  is a well-known summary of the state of the field in That paper defined new processes for the transformation of one heavy nucleus into others within stars, processes that could be documented by astronomers.b) Hubble Diagram.
The basic idea of an expanding universe is the notion that the distance between any two points increases over time.
One of the consequences of this effect is that, as light travels through this expanding space, its . Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and feelthefish.com first nuclei were formed about three minutes after the Big Bang, through the process called Big Bang feelthefish.comeen minutes later the universe had cooled to a point at which these processes ended, so only the fastest and simplest reactions occurred, leaving.
Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Atom: A Single Oxygen Atom's Journey from the Big Bang to Life on Earth and Beyond at feelthefish.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the nuclear process by which new nuclei are produced. It occurs in stars during stellar feelthefish.com is responsible for the galactic abundances of elements from carbon to feelthefish.com are thermonuclear furnaces in which H and He are fused into heavier nuclei by increasingly high temperatures as the composition of the .
We are all made of stardust. It sounds like a line from a poem, but there is some solid science behind this statement too: almost every element on Earth was formed at the heart of a star.
b) Hubble Diagram. The basic idea of an expanding universe is the notion that the distance between any two points increases over time. One of the consequences of this effect is that, as light travels through this expanding space, its wavelength is stretched as well.