It deals with bar and sensing of unauthorised actions by users of a computing machine. Network securities steps are needed to protect informations during their transmittals are reliable.
Authentication, authorization and auditing are the most important issues of security on data communication. An authentication system must provide adequate security for its intended environment, otherwise it fails to meet its primary goal. A proposed system should at minimum be evaluated against common attacks to determine if it satisfies security requirements.
We classify the types of attacks on knowledge-based authentication into two general categories: In successful guessing attacks, attackers are able to either exhaustively search through the entire theoretical password space, or predict higher probability passwords i.
Guessing attacks may be conducted online through the intended login interface, or online if some variable text e. Authentication systems with small theoretical password spaces or with identifiable patterns in user choice of passwords are especially vulnerable to guessing attacks.
Fake websites which appear very similar to the original ones are being hosted to achieve this. Phishing is an attempt by an individual or a group to get confidential information such as passwords and credit card information from unsuspecting victims for identity theft, financial gain and other fraudulent activities.
Authentication is the first line of defense against compromising confidentiality and integrity. The various authentication systems were introduced but even they are also suffering from shoulder surfing and screen dump attacks.
As a result of the astonishingly rapid advancement of various kinds of Internet technologies, more information are transmitted to all parts of the world from everywhere through the net.
Some of the objects transmitted online may be important secret images, and in such cases the senders have to take information security issues into consideration before they can trustingly enjoy the speed and convenience that nothing in this world but the Internet can offer.
Cryptography is the study of mathematically related techniques to achieve Information Security in terms of confidentiality, data security, entity authentication and data origin authentication.
However, it is not the only means of providing information security. Cryptography includes a set of techniques to achieve confidentiality amongst others when transmitting or storing data.
Traditional cryptographic schemes require end users to employ complex operations for encryption as well as decryption. An alternative to encrypt messages is Visual Cryptography VCwhere the decryption is completely performed by the human visual system.
Visual cryptography is a new technique which provides information security which uses simple algorithm unlike the complex, computationally intensive algorithms of traditional cryptography. This technique allows Visual information pictures, text, etc to be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without any complex cryptographic algorithms.
VC schemes hide the secret image into two or more images which are called shares.
The secret image can be recovered simply by stacking the shares together without any complex computation involved. The shares are very safe because separately they reveal nothing about the secret image.
But, password capture attacks involve directly obtaining the password, or part thereof, by capturing login credentials when entered by the user, or by tricking the user into divulging their password. Shoulder surfing, phishing, and some kinds of malware are common forms of capture attacks.
In shoulder surfing, credentials are captured by direct observation of the login process or through some external recording device such as a video camera.
Phishing is a type of social engineering where users are tricked into entering their credentials at a fraudulent website recording user input. Malware uses unauthorized software on client computers or servers to capture keyboard, mouse, or screen output, which is then parsed to and login credentials.
As will be seen, early graphical password systems tended to focus on one particular strength, for example being resistant to shoulder surfing, but testing and analysis showed that they were vulnerable to one or more other types of attacks. Except in very specific environments, these would not provide adequate security.
Often playing an important role related to security is the particular process of encoding or discretization used to transforming the user input into discrete units that can be identified by the system and used for comparison during password re-entry.
As will be seen, some schemes require that the system retains knowledge of the exact secret or portion thereofeither to display the correct set of images to the user or to verify password entries. In other cases, encoded or discretized passwords may be hashed, using a one-way cryptographic hash, to provide additional security in case the password level is compromised.
Since such a stream of passwords is almost impossible to remember certainly for methe hapless user is forced to write these passwords down, adding to the insecurity.
Thus passwords need to be protected by cryptographic techniques, whether they are stored or transmitted. Several simple techniques can help make the old-fashioned form of passwords easier to memorize. First, the system can present a user with a list of possible random passwords from which to choose.
With such a choice, there may be one password that is easier for a given user to remember. Second, the most common passwords are limited to 8 characters, and experience has shown that users have a hard time picking such a short password that turns out to be secure. If the system allows passwords of arbitrary length fairly common nowthen users can employ pass phrases: Personal physical characteristics form the basis for a number of identification methods now in use.This free Computer Science essay on Essay: The emerging role of distance bounding protocol in aerospace systems is perfect for Computer .
Cryptography, Security and the Future.
Bruce Schneier; Most systems are not designed and implemented by cryptographers, but by engineers who think cryptography is like any other computer technology. And the disciplines of public-key infrastructure, software security, computer security, network security, and tamper-resistant hardware.
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The Role Of Cryptography In Network Security Computer Science Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Explore and explain different types of cryptography and assess the role of cryptography in network security. Cryptography has different methods for taking clear, readable data, and converts into unreadable data of secure communication and.
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Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This definition defines the whole mechanism that provides the necessary level of security comprised of network protocols and data encryption algorithms.
Cryptography provides information Security for.